Archive December 2018

Promises are shown against Chikungunya Virus by a new vaccine

Chikungunya virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash. Outbreaks have occurred in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, chikungunya virus was found for the first time in the Americas on islands in the Caribbean. There is a risk that the virus will be imported to new areas by infected travelers. There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites. When traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and stay in places with air conditioning or that use window and door screens.

A novel vaccine, based on a modified measles virus, promises to be safe and effective against the chikungunya virus, results of a clinical trial published in the journal The Lancet, have shown.

The vaccine is injected into muscle and triggers the production of antibodies in the lymphatic system. If the person is infected with the chikungunya virus, these antibodies are ready to neutralise the virus so that the disease does not take hold.

The Phase II trial, led by University of Vienna in Austria, showed that just two injections are enough to provide immunity, regardless of whether these are given at an interval of one or six months. 

The results “are really very promising in terms of immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the vaccine”, said Ursula Wiedermann-Schmidt, Professor from the varsity. 

The vaccine is a live vaccine based on the measles virus vaccinal strain, which has been genetically modified to express the surface proteins of chikungunya. 

Neutralising antibodies are formed after a single vaccination.  Chikungunya fever is an emerging viral disease and substantial threat to public health and the virus is spreading throughout the world particularly in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

In addition, it increases or boosts the protective substances or antibodies against measles.

The Phase II trials was conducted over 263 volunteers. 

Currently there is no specific treatment capable of halting the chikungunya virus and the associated high fever with severe muscle, limb and joint pain, which can even prove fatal under certain circumstances.

Black Tea is the best weight loss companion for you…to reduce belly fat without dieting.

Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas. Black tea is generally stronger in flavour than the less oxidized teas. All four types are made from leaves of the shrub (or small tree) Camellia sinensis. Two principal varieties of the species are used – the small-leaved Chinese variety plant (C. sinensis var. sinensis), used for most other types of teas, and the large-leaved Assamese plant (C. sinensis var. assamica), which was traditionally mainly used for black tea, although in recent years some green and white teas have been produced.

Black tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages across the world. It is made from the leaves of Camellia sinensis plant and blended with other plants for different flavours, such as Earl Grey, English breakfast or chai. Black tea is packed with nutrients and antioxidants that can help improve health and reduce inflammation in the body. Studies have shown that black tea may enhance weight loss and help fight belly fat. So, if you’re looking for a natural strategy to help you slim down, adding black tea to your diet may be just as effective as green tea for losing the pounds.

Apart from aiding weight loss, certain compounds found in black tea has been found to protect health in many ways. For instance, the polyphenols and antimicrobial properties present in black tea have been shown to improve gut health and immunity. Similarly, flavonoids in black tea are linked to better heart health. Perhaps, various studies have found that black tea can help reduce the risk of certain conditions, including cancer, stroke, high blood pressure, etc. Black tea is also a great non-sweetened drink that can help lower blood sugar levels and improve the use of insulin in the body. ?

The Effect of Black Tea on Weight Loss

A group of plant-based antioxidants called flavonoids, or polyphenols, are responsible for many of the health benefits associated with tea. All types of tea are made from the same plant leaves, which contain a group of flavonoids called catechins. In green tea, the primary flavonoids are catechins. When the leaves are further processed to produce black tea, the catechins form new flavonoids called theaflavins and thearubigins. Black tea may retain a small amount of catechins, but its health benefits come from the new flavonoids.

Research published so far suggests that black tea has the potential to support weight loss. The digestive enzyme lipase is inhibited in laboratory animals that consume black tea flavonoids. Since fats aren’t digested without lipase, some dietary fats are eliminated from the body rather than absorbed. When lab mice were fed a high-fat diet, the animals receiving a higher dose of black tea polyphenols lost more weight than the group that got fewer polyphenols, reported Nutrition in 2011.

Researchers also reported that energy expenditure — or calories burned — significantly increased after laboratory mice received a dose of theaflavins from black tea, according to PLoS One in September 2015. The studies published so far are promising, but they’ve only used lab animals. More research is needed in people to determine black tea’s impact on weight loss.

How to make black tea for max fat loss

Preparing black tea is so simple and takes a few minutes. You can either opt for tea bags or loose leaves – and adjust the taste to your preference. To make black tea –

  • Boil water
  • Simply place a tea bag in your favourite mug or cup and fill it with the boiling water – in case you’re using store-bought tea bags.
  • Let the tea steep in the water for 5 minutes.
  • You may use more tea leaves and steep for a longer period of time if you like stronger tea.
  • Now,remove the tea bag or tea leaves from the water.
  • Your black tea is now ready to be consumed.

Low in calories with less caffeine than coffee or energy drinks, black tea is a great choice to add to your daily diet especially if you’re trying to drop those extra kilos.

Heart Attack Risk can be reduced by Fish Oil.

Two Harvard studies provide firm evidence that the omega 3 fatty acids found in fish like salmon, sardines or tuna can have a beneficial effect on heart health.

Fish oil can be obtained from eating fish or by taking supplements. Fish that are especially rich in the beneficial oils known as omega-3 fatty acids include mackerel, herring, tuna, salmon, cod liver, whale blubber, and seal blubber. Two of the most important omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oil are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Make sure to see separate listings on EPA and DHA, as well as Cod Liver Oil, and Shark Liver Oil.
Eating more fish or taking a fish oil supplement can reduce your risk of a heart attack, according to a pair of Harvard-led clinical trials.
Heart benefits from omega-3 fatty acids were found both in healthy people and in people with conditions that put them at increased risk of heart attack, stroke or heart disease, the two studies found.

Fish Oil Supplement Benefits
The Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL) found that healthy people who took a fish oil supplement suffered fewer heart attacks, particularly if they were black or did not regularly eat fish.
Meanwhile, a purified form of omega-3 fatty acid reduced the risk of death by heart disease, heart attack or stroke in people with hardened arteries or other heart risk factors, according to findings from the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).
Interestingly, research suggests that fish oil supplements can prevent the onset or improve the symptoms of some mental disorders. For example, it can reduce the chances of psychotic disorders in those who are at risk
“We’re not recommending that everyone in the world begin taking fish oil supplements. In terms of the omega 3s, the best thing to do is to try to have more dietary fish,” Manson said. “If people aren’t going to eat fish, there really may be some benefits from taking a fish oil supplement. We recommend they discuss that with their health care provider.”
Results from both clinical trials were to be presented at the American Heart Association’s annual meeting, in Chicago, and will be published simultaneously in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Trial importance:
The clinical trial found no heart health benefit from vitamin D, although it did reduce the risk of cancer death by 25%.
In the REDUCE-IT trial, another research team at Brigham and Women’s Hospital tested the benefits of a pure and stable form of the omega-3 fatty acid known as EPA.
The supplement, icosapent ethyl, is a prescription medication approved to reduce triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol
Dr Satjit Bhusri is a cardiologist with Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. “This is a very important and impressive trial. Its results will have a lasting change in the prevention of heart disease,” said Bhusri, who was not involved with the studies. “A reduction in heart attacks this profound has not seen been since in primary prevention since the early trials of aspirin therapy.”
REDUCE-IT included more than 8 000 patients taking statins to lower their cholesterol and prevent either a first or repeat heart attack or stroke. About seven in 10 patients in the study had hardened arteries, while the rest had diabetes and at least one other heart risk factor.
People taking icosapent ethyl had a 20% reduction in their risk of heart-related death, a 31% reduction in heart attack and a 28% reduction in stroke, compared to those given a placebo, researchers found.

Muscles and Nervous System gets in danger and weak by Cholesterol -Lowering Drugs.

Keeping LDL cholesterol in check is one of several ways to lower your risk of heart disease and stroke. Lifestyle changes, including a healthier diet and physical activity, may lower cholesterol in some people, while for others medication may also be required.

A team of researchers looked into the question of how bad white fat cells, which form the layer of fat under our skin, become good brown fat cells. Having conducted cell culture experiments, they found out that the biochemical pathway responsible for producing cholesterol plays a central role in this transformation.

Statin-induced drugs that are prescribed to individuals with high levels of cholesterol may weaken the patient’s muscles and nervous system, a study has observed.

Regular use of junk food and lack of an exercise regime has put urban kids at increased risk of high cholesterol levels.

The liver produces cholesterol our bodies need to function properly. It’s when we have too much cholesterol in the blood that problems can arise. Statins are a class of drugs that reduce cholesterol production in the liver. “Statins have the best evidence in terms of reducing cardiovascular event rates,” said endocrinologist Anne Carol Goldberg, M.D., professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

According to the research, which has been published in the journal Cell Metabolism, statin reduces the formation of brown adipose tissue which helps to convert sugar and fat into heat. People with brown adipose tissue are better at regulating their body temperature in the winter and are less likely to suffer from excess weight or diabetes.

Statins disrupt the production of cholesterol by blocking a specific enzyme inside cholesterol-producing liver cells. This results in more cholesterol-containing particles being removed from the bloodstream by the liver. Some statins also reduce the inflammatory process caused by elevated cholesterol within blood vessel walls. When the body has a reduced reaction to the invading cholesterol, fewer macrophages are allowed to travel into the artery walls, where they would have formed foam cells and plaque.

A team of researchers looked into the question of how bad white fat cells, which form the layer of fat under our skin, become good brown fat cells. Having conducted cell culture experiments, they found out that the biochemical pathway responsible for producing cholesterol plays a central role in this transformation. They also discovered that the key molecule regulating the transformation is the metabolite geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.

They also studied positron emission tomography scans of 8,500 patients. This let them determine whether the person had brown adipose tissue. It was also known whether the patients were taking statins. Evaluating the scans shows that 6 per cent of those not taking the medication had brown adipose tissue, but this tissue type was present in only a little over 1 per cent of those who were taking statins.

The researchers conducted a separate clinical study of 16 people to demonstrate that statins reduce the activity of brown adipose tissue.

“We also have to consider that statins are incredibly important as a way to prevent cardiovascular disease. They save millions of lives around the world, and they are prescribed for a very good reason,” said Christian Wolfrum, a researcher. However, statins also have another negative effect: in high doses, they slightly increase some people’s risk of developing diabetes – as has been shown in other studies.

Metabolism can boost upto 2 days with 1 hour run on Treadmill: Research

The findings showed that a single bout of exercise for mice could boost the activity of energy-burning neurons and inhibit the counterpart one for up to two days and those changes can last longer with more training.

A single workout session consisting of three 20-minute treadmill runs could activate neurons that are important regulators of blood glucose levels and energy balance as well as influence metabolism for up to two days, says a study over mice.

“The study predicts that getting out and exercising even once in a semi-intense manner can reap benefits that can last for days, in particular with respect to glucose metabolism,” he added.Roughly 46 percent of people spend most of the workday sitting, and studies have shown that walking 1 mph burns well over twice as many calories as sitting for the same time period––191 calories versus 72 calories per hour, respectively. Further, a single workout consisting of three 20-minute treadmill runs caused a decrease in appetite that lasted up to six hours.”This result may explain at the neural circuit level why many people don’t feel hungry immediately after exercise,” Williams said.In the study, 24 participants completed the different cognitive tests while sitting, standing and walking at a self-imposed pace of roughly 1.4 mph and a faster pace of 2.1 mph. Working memory was slightly impaired during the test where participants had to recall numbers they’d just been shown in a series.
One of the neuron types is associated with reduced appetite, lower blood glucose levels, and higher energy burning when activated while the other type increases appetite and diminishes metabolism when activated.The study also provides avenue to research potential treatments to improve glucose metabolism in patients with conditions such as diabetes.”It is possible that activating melanocortin neurons may hold therapeutic benefits for patients one day, especially for diabetics who need improved blood-glucose regulation,” Williams said.”This research is not just for improving fitness. A better understanding of neural links to exercise can potentially help a number of conditions affected by glucose regulation,” he noted.
People who use the walking workstations see a significant boost in memory recall, even after having used them at a relatively relaxed pace for a short length of time. That’s according to a study published in the latest edition of the journal Computers in Human Behavior.

OBESE PEOPLE AT INCREASED RISK OF DEPRESSION

The recently published research paper in the international journal of epidemiology shows how being overweight causes psychological impact on body in spite of physiological illness such as cardiovascular diseases or even diabetes.

Symptoms of depression include increased appetite, reduced activity and weight gain. Both depression and obesity have strong genetic links. Therefore children of people with either or both problems have more chance to have them as well.

The research states, increase in BMI doesn’t just increase risk of cardiovascular and chronic disorders but also it may lead to depression.

For the study, the researchers looked at UK Bio bank data. From more than 48,000 people with depression, comparing them with a control group of more than 290,000 people who were born between 1938 and 1971, who provided medical and genetic information.

To determine that whether the people were having depression hospital data and self reportings were used. Genetic approach used to find link between these two. It was that people with higher BMI had low active genes for chronic disorders but more unstable mind set.

Child Malnutrition in Quetta: UNICEF official

40 to 65 percent of children in some parts of Quetta suburbs, aged between six months and five years are suffering from severe acute malnutrition. A nutrition officer from UNICEF Dr. Faisal revealed this to DawnNewsTV on Sunday.

“The worst areas are Quetta’s Panjpai tehsil and Kahan in terms of undernourishment,” he said.

In a study from Quetta, Baluchistan , it was reported that one out of two (48%) children were stunned and 10% were wasted. In another study Ansari highlighted that 22% children were stunned, 10% were wasted, and 24% were underweight in urban areas of Pakistan.

A joint screening in Quetta was conducted, between UNICEF and Balochistan government’s health department Pishin and Killa Abdullah districts of the province. Over 2,500 teams were formed to screen children from December 5 to 8, according to Dr Sher Ahmed Satakzai, the provincial coordinator for Balochistan’s lady health workers programme.

In view of severe drought-like conditions, the Balochistan government has already declared an emergency in 14 districts of the province. The government has decided to conduct a screening of children in drought-hit districts as well including Chaghi, Noshki, Washuk and Kharan, DrSatakzai said, adding that lady health workers would be tasked with carrying out the job.

Only one study has been carried out in the provincial capital Quetta, Baluchistan, and none of the research on child malnutrition was carried out in Gilgit Baltistan, Azad Jammu Kashmir, and Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA).

Medical experts believe poverty, a lack of clean water and inappropriate food are the primary underlying reasons behind acute malnutrition.

World Health Organisation principles dictate that an emergency be declared when the number of malnourished children reaches 15pc, Dr Faisal said.

Province-wide numbers

Over 30,000 children below the age of five years have been found severely malnourished across the province during a separate screening process conducted by a nutrition cell over the course of the last two years. “Over 100,000 mothers were found anaemic,” he said.Ghulam Mustafa, the deputy manager of the nutrition cell said a screening of over 400,000 children and 200,000 pregnant and breastfeeding mothers was conducted in the province.

How good is Yogurt actually for your health ?

Lot’s of sugar on its way…

How many times have you had yogurt for breakfast or as a snack this week ? A lot ? Well…same.

Yogurt is , for sure , considered to be super-healthy. Have you seen how many varieties they stock at Whole Foods ?

“I’m obsessed with frozen yogurt because you don’t feel totally guilty eating it. It’s not as bad as ice cream, and during the hot summer months, it’s a great way to just refresh.”Says Caroline Sunshine.

But is yogurt really good for you, given how much sugar it has?

The short version: yes. “Considering it’s packed with probiotics, calcium, potassium, and protein, yogurt is one of the healthiest foods you can eat,” says Karen Ansel, R.D.

Yogurt Also has two kinds: Regular or greek

Greek yogurt is made by straining out the extra whey in regular yogurt. It makes a yogurt that’s thicker, creamier and tangier than regular yogurtPlain Greek yogurt has less sugar and more protein than regular yogurt. But regular yogurt delivers twice the bone-strengthening mineral calcium.

While people are REALLY obsessed with Greek yogurt, it is actually pretty similar nutritionally to regular yogurt. (You can see how eight ounces of plain, low-fat yogurt and plain, low-fat Greek yogurt compare in the infographic below.)

Here’s been chatter about the environmental impact of Greek yogurt’s byproduct, whey. When Greek yogurt is strained, the whey from the milk (also called “acid” whey because of its lower pH) is left over. The whey can be sold to farmers to add to livestock feed, and can also be used as fertilizer and even turned into electricity.

Because Greek yogurt production has increased so rapidly in recent years, there’s been some concern that farms don’t have the capacity to handle all the extra whey produced. They can use some of the whey productively, but the large quantities produced are too much. More research is currently being done on more efficient and new ways to handle the byproduct.

However, flavored yogurts (whether they’re regular or Greek) often contain added sugars and sweeteners that will take the carbohydrates and sugar counts way up. Skip those and add your own in the form of fruit, cinnamon, honey, or maple syrup if needed. 

Which to Choose:

Go Greek! The high-protein yogurt makes a more filling and hearty snack. It’s also great added to smoothies or mixed with fruit and whole-grain cereal for breakfast. Not to mention, plain Greek yogurt can be used in place of sour cream to save 78 calories and 7 grams of saturated fat (per ¼ cup) when making tacos, dips or baked potatoes.

 

Cool, so what are the actual health benefits of yogurt?

To be clear, you can get way more from a cup of yogurt than just calcium and protein. It also contains “good bacteria” that support your gut and immune system. “[Probiotics] have been credited with everything from improving digestion, to boosting immune health, to protecting against depression,” says Ansel.

Plus, some studies have suggested that four weeks of regularly eating probiotic yogurt is good for your brain, while another large study credited the healthy bacteria in yogurt for lowering risk of heart attack and stroke among people who ate just two servings a week. Not bad, not bad at all. 

It gets better: A 2012 study of over 120,000 people who weren’t obese and didn’t suffer from chronic disease found that regularly eating yogurt might protect against weight gain, possibly due to changes in gut bacteria. Woot!