Resistant lung cancers can be treated by Breast Cancer drugs.

Breast cancer is cancer that develops in breast cells.
Typically, the cancer forms in either the lobules or the ducts of the breast. Lobules are the glands that produce milk, and ducts are the pathways that bring the milk from the glands to the nipple.

Cancer can also occur in the fatty tissue or the fibrous connective tissue within your breast.

A class of drugs used to treat certain breast cancers could help to tackle lung cancers that have become resistant to targeted therapies, suggests a new study in mice from the Francis Crick Institute and The Institute of Cancer Research, London.

The research, published in Cell Reports, found that lung tumours in mice caused by mutations in a gene called EGFR shrunk significantly when a protein called p110α was blocked.

Drugs to block p110α are currently showing promise in clinical trials against certain breast cancers, so could be approved for clinical use in the near future. The new findings suggest that these drugs could potentially benefit patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers whose tumours have become resistant to treatment.

“Our new study suggests that it would be worth investigating whether p110α inhibitors could be used as a second-line therapy. As our research is at such an early stage, more research in mice and patient cells would be needed before even considering clinical trials, but it opens up a promising avenue of investigation.”

“At the moment, patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers are given targeted treatments that are very effective for the first few years,” explains study leader Professor Julian Downward, who has labs at the Crick and the ICR. “These drugs are improving, but unfortunately after a couple of years the cancer usually becomes resistant and starts to grow and spread again. The second line of treatment is currently conventional chemotherapy, which is not targeted and has substantial side-effects.

Very few side-effects

For this research, the team targeted a specific interaction between the RAS protein and p110α. The RAS gene is mutated in around one in five cancers, causing uncontrolled growth, and is a key focus of Julian’s research. When they blocked this interaction in genetically modified mice with EGFR mutations, their tumours shrank significantly.

“As we wanted to pinpoint the specific interaction responsible, we used a genetic technique that would not be practical in a patient treatment,” says Julian. “We’re looking to develop ways to do this with drugs, as blocking this specific pathway would significantly reduce side-effects, but this work is many years from the clinic. In the medium-term, investigating existing drugs that inhibit p110α will be the next step. While these have side-effects, including temporary diabetes-like symptoms during treatment, they are still less toxic than chemotherapy.”

Before the intervention, the tumours filled around two thirds of the space inside the lung. When the interaction between RAS and p110α was genetically blocked, this shrank significantly to about a tenth of the space inside the lung. The intervention also had very few side-effects.

Promises are shown against Chikungunya Virus by a new vaccine

Chikungunya virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash. Outbreaks have occurred in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, chikungunya virus was found for the first time in the Americas on islands in the Caribbean. There is a risk that the virus will be imported to new areas by infected travelers. There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites. When traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and stay in places with air conditioning or that use window and door screens.

A novel vaccine, based on a modified measles virus, promises to be safe and effective against the chikungunya virus, results of a clinical trial published in the journal The Lancet, have shown.

The vaccine is injected into muscle and triggers the production of antibodies in the lymphatic system. If the person is infected with the chikungunya virus, these antibodies are ready to neutralise the virus so that the disease does not take hold.

The Phase II trial, led by University of Vienna in Austria, showed that just two injections are enough to provide immunity, regardless of whether these are given at an interval of one or six months. 

The results “are really very promising in terms of immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the vaccine”, said Ursula Wiedermann-Schmidt, Professor from the varsity. 

The vaccine is a live vaccine based on the measles virus vaccinal strain, which has been genetically modified to express the surface proteins of chikungunya. 

Neutralising antibodies are formed after a single vaccination.  Chikungunya fever is an emerging viral disease and substantial threat to public health and the virus is spreading throughout the world particularly in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

In addition, it increases or boosts the protective substances or antibodies against measles.

The Phase II trials was conducted over 263 volunteers. 

Currently there is no specific treatment capable of halting the chikungunya virus and the associated high fever with severe muscle, limb and joint pain, which can even prove fatal under certain circumstances.

Muscles and Nervous System gets in danger and weak by Cholesterol -Lowering Drugs.

Keeping LDL cholesterol in check is one of several ways to lower your risk of heart disease and stroke. Lifestyle changes, including a healthier diet and physical activity, may lower cholesterol in some people, while for others medication may also be required.

A team of researchers looked into the question of how bad white fat cells, which form the layer of fat under our skin, become good brown fat cells. Having conducted cell culture experiments, they found out that the biochemical pathway responsible for producing cholesterol plays a central role in this transformation.

Statin-induced drugs that are prescribed to individuals with high levels of cholesterol may weaken the patient’s muscles and nervous system, a study has observed.

Regular use of junk food and lack of an exercise regime has put urban kids at increased risk of high cholesterol levels.

The liver produces cholesterol our bodies need to function properly. It’s when we have too much cholesterol in the blood that problems can arise. Statins are a class of drugs that reduce cholesterol production in the liver. “Statins have the best evidence in terms of reducing cardiovascular event rates,” said endocrinologist Anne Carol Goldberg, M.D., professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

According to the research, which has been published in the journal Cell Metabolism, statin reduces the formation of brown adipose tissue which helps to convert sugar and fat into heat. People with brown adipose tissue are better at regulating their body temperature in the winter and are less likely to suffer from excess weight or diabetes.

Statins disrupt the production of cholesterol by blocking a specific enzyme inside cholesterol-producing liver cells. This results in more cholesterol-containing particles being removed from the bloodstream by the liver. Some statins also reduce the inflammatory process caused by elevated cholesterol within blood vessel walls. When the body has a reduced reaction to the invading cholesterol, fewer macrophages are allowed to travel into the artery walls, where they would have formed foam cells and plaque.

A team of researchers looked into the question of how bad white fat cells, which form the layer of fat under our skin, become good brown fat cells. Having conducted cell culture experiments, they found out that the biochemical pathway responsible for producing cholesterol plays a central role in this transformation. They also discovered that the key molecule regulating the transformation is the metabolite geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.

They also studied positron emission tomography scans of 8,500 patients. This let them determine whether the person had brown adipose tissue. It was also known whether the patients were taking statins. Evaluating the scans shows that 6 per cent of those not taking the medication had brown adipose tissue, but this tissue type was present in only a little over 1 per cent of those who were taking statins.

The researchers conducted a separate clinical study of 16 people to demonstrate that statins reduce the activity of brown adipose tissue.

“We also have to consider that statins are incredibly important as a way to prevent cardiovascular disease. They save millions of lives around the world, and they are prescribed for a very good reason,” said Christian Wolfrum, a researcher. However, statins also have another negative effect: in high doses, they slightly increase some people’s risk of developing diabetes – as has been shown in other studies.